2007년에 쓴 글

Excretion 2018.05.25 19:03


학교 숙제로 쓴것 같은데 제목이 없다.




Introduction

     It is widely accepted that the creative activities of humankind has been affected by its contemporaneous circumstance. In other words, a work of art has always been related to several elements such as historical, cultural and social conditions. The invention of photography was also influenced by technical development and social changes. For example, it seems that photography was invented by painters who wanted to extend their limitation. In early history of photography, before photography obtained aesthetic value, it was similar to a simple tool which is useful for painters. It is believed that the art of humankind flows under the various aspects of historical situation. For instance, in the beginning of traditional works of art, such painting and sculpture was not only aesthetic object. In this point of view, photography is not any more an invention as it is a discovery. Compare to the other works of art, indeed, photography has short history. It was born in the age of modernism and passed through, or still live in, postmodernism. It thought that what most important argument of modern-photography was about a question of possibility of as art photography. However, postmodernism is not a solution of that question. Postmodernism is familiar to branch of tree which grew on modernism. It seems that all of the trend of notion and conception are base on contemporary effects and interconnection of the prior and the present.

Modernism 

     It seems that modernism has connection with various aspects of complicated situation. For instance, as Harrison, C (1994) noted that, modern society began with the social function within a society which derived much of its prosperity from industrial manufacture. In addition, modernism was a movement in the first half of the twentieth century that rejected traditional values and techniques, and emphasized the importance of individual experience. In the arts, a radical break with the past and current search for new forms of expression. Modernism was a period of experimentation in the arts from the late 19th to the middle of 20th century, particularly in the years following World War I. In a period characterized by industrialization, rapid social change, advances in science and the social sciences. Modernists felt a growing alienation incompatible with Victorian morality, optimism, and convention. The Modernist desire is furled in various literatures by industrialization and urbanization, by the search for an authentic response to a much-changed world.

 Modernism and photography

     Specifically, as an art historical term, Cristoper, L.C.E(1997) pointed out that  modernism refers to a period dating from roughly the 1860s through the 1970s and is used to describe the style and the ideology of art produced during that era. It is this more specific use of modern that is intended when people speak of modern art. The term of modernism is also used to refer to the period of the art of the modern. Officially, photography was invented in 1839, at that time, it was more accurately a discovery of nature’s capacity to register its own images. Jeffrey, J (1981) stated that Camera images were called ‘sun pictures’ and said to be ‘impressed by nature’s hand’, However, Photography started to find its own meaning rapidly and it was successful. There were two main reasons for this. First of all, photography developed from a number of independent artists and sources around the world. That source was base on modernism and they were modern artist. Secondary, modernism, as a significant change of art history, contributed to development of photography as art medium. In consequence, the beginning of photography was with modernism. 

Pictorialism

    It is widely believed that Pictorialism was one of crucial movement of photography in modernism. As Reggat, R (1999) pointed out that the term Pictorialism is used to describe photographs in which the actual scene depicted is less important than the artistic quality of the image. Therefore, it seems that pictorialists would be more concerned with the aesthetics and, sometimes, the emotional impact of the image, rather than what actually was in front of their camera. It thought that the early modern photographer started to develop meaning in form and content from traditional genre or classical themes. These experimenters in photography selected more urban subjects and new points of view as painters.

Alfred Stieglitz

     Grundberg, A (1999) insisted that to understand what modernism has meant for photography, he said we have to take into account the enormous and continuing influence of Alfred Stiglitz. He was worked a wide range of field as a critic, editor, gallery owner, promoter, enthusiast, and nurturer, but he started as a photographer and he remained on throughout his life. Photography hasn’t always been considered an art. In early history of photography, photographs were considered an advance of science, not art. Cameras were machines, and everyone knew that machines didn’t make art. However when Alfred Stieglitz made this picture he was leading a movement of pictorialism, which promoted the photograph as art, the same kind of art as a drawing or painting. Stieglitz and other pictorialists understood that a photograph was created when the camera was used as a tool, like a paintbrush was a tool. And they tried to show that they were a part of the art tradition by manipulating their photos in the darkroom, using tricks and techniques that were evidence of the human hand in the process.

 

Out of Pictorialism

     On the other hand, it seems that Phillips, C (2006) has different point of view. As he explained that the World Wars witnessed a burst of extraordinary innovation in visual culture, nowhere more so than in the area of photography. Enthusiasm for the advent of an urban, technological civilization reached a peak during this period. By the late 1920s, in both Europe and America, inventive young photographers had created an image of dynamism and glittering prosperity that was widely felt to mirror the new metropolis. By the early 1930s this euphoric image was influenced by an economic crisis of unprecedented scope swept Europe and America. This time affected by young documentary photographers and photojournalists such as Walker Evans, Dorothea Lange, and Russell Lee, which captured the desperate efforts to revive urban and rural communities, during the remainder of the decade. In a way, at the same time, there was one of most significant article of history of photography, it was “ The Work of Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction”.


Walter Benjamin

     It thought that Walter Benjamin (1892-1940) was eternal theorist who finished argument about question “photography is an art or not”. However, his most important work was that seeing photography as Marxist’s point of view. He did not focus his attention only on photography itself; he took social aspects into account. As Hansen, who is author ofBenjamin and Cinema: Not a One-Way Street, stated that Benjamin’s main points were that technical and mechanical conditions of reproduction replace earlier conditions of producing and consuming artworks. Photography does not gradually culminate in the moving images of cinema, but implies cinema and foreshadows it from the beginning, just as the camera obscura foreshadows the fixed image of the photograph. And she also pointed out about aura.

Aura implies authenticity but there is no authenticity without its destruction in mechanical reproducibility. Reproducible art replaces authenticity with an added extra—unheard of perceptions are made possible. Aura is explained in analogy with the experience of nature superseded in the experience of mechanically reproduced images, for which, however perfect they are as images, are missing the point of presence—the presence of the object—that gives it its aura.  The difference is like the loss of the presence of the actor in the passage from stage to screen. But cinema makes so much more possible than the stage can do. It seems that Benjamin’s theories became a morale booster of photography and he became a precursor of postmodernism.

Postmodernism

     As Aarnio, E (2000) noted that in the early 1980s, the role of the photograph underwent a fundamental change. Although the Pop Art and Conceptual Art of the 1960s and 1970s had begun to make use of photograph in artistic expression, it was in the 1980s that it was moulded into a postmodernist tool thus breaking new ground for visual artists. The objectivity of the photograph and its weight as evidence were no longer regarded as a fact. The meaning of a work and its interpretation was increasingly often bound up with the context in which it was shown and how it was displayed. Young visual artists in particular were fascinated by the way the photograph destroyed the traditional status of art and artist associated with modernism: a photograph could be copied endlessly, and its size and presentation could be altered. Although, she simply summarised postmodernism in photography, however, it seems that explained exactly. Because, modernism was resistance against traditional thought, postmodernism also has great notion that escape from standardisation. It seems that after modernism, there are many branches, only. Grundberg, A (1999, p.18) insisted that “ what postmodernist art finally tells us is that things have been used up, that we are at the end of the line, that we are all prisoners of what we see.” It thought that postmodernism did not denied all of past idea.  

 Crisis of the Real

     It seems that Marxism critic, psychoanalysis of Fued and semiotic of Saussur as a contemporaneous theories, affected postmodernism. Grundberg, A (1999, p.101) states that “There was once a time, and not so very long ago, when seeing was believing about our faith in the superficial availability of reality, in its obviousness, has dwindled dramatically-thanks to the influence of, among others, Marx, Freud, and Saussur-and with it much of our faith in the camera as witness”. He also insisted that photography, in crisis of the real, could be a mirror of crisis in the world of representation, however, it also is evidence of the continuing power of the images. It thought that photography communicated with many contemporary theories and it transformed itself to context. Grundberg explained that the idea that reality has been replaced by its simulacrum depends above all on the hyperabundant presence of photographic images in western culture. According to Baudrillard and Roland Barthes, photography is not as scenes taken from the world, but as cultural representations.  

Structuralism and Post-Structuralism

     It thought that structuralism and post structuralism crucially influenced postmodernism. Structuralism can be defined as a term refers to various theories across the humanities, social sciences and economics many of which share the assumption that structural relationships between concepts vary between different cultures and languages and that these relationships can be usefully exposed and explored. Post-structuralism is difficult to explain because it seems that rejects definitions. Eptstein, B (1998) explained that at any given moment and theoretical understanding, human experience only limited aspects of the world and some of what human experience is based on falsehoods embedded in some of the discourses human have learned.

 Stadium and Punctum

     Roland Barthes (1915-1980) was a semiotican, simply. Punctum and Stadium, this one of crucial conception of photography came from him. Barthes explains that there are two elements involved when viewing a photograph. One element is the studium. The studium is a kind of education (civility, politeness) that allows discovery of the operator. It is the order of liking, not loving. The second and far more interesting element for the spectator is punctum. There are two kinds of punctum. The first is that which is that accident which pricks, bruises me. It is the unintentional detail that could not be taken, and that fills the whole picture. Barthes says there is no rule that can be applied to the existence of studium and punctum within a photo except that it is a matter of co-presence. These are the photos which take our breath away for some reason that was completely unintended by the photographer (or by the subject, for that matter). It is at the moment when the punctum strikes that the photograph will annihilate itself as medium to be no longer a sign but the thing itself.  And the object will become subject again. The second kind of punctum is that of time. It is most vividly legible in historical photographs. Because photographs invoke our future death, they challenge us outside any generality. Thus the reading of a photograph is ultimately always a private reading, read as the private appearance of its referent. It thought that the studium is a term for the interest which we show in a photograph, the desire to study and understand what the meanings are in a photograph, to explore the relationship between the meanings and our own subjectivities. The punctum is more about the sudden recognition of meaning, the unexpected

Photographic Culture

     Grundberg said that 1980s, postmodernism consciously sought to undercut and displace the aesthetic standards and aspirations of its immediate antecedents. What makes the art of the 1980s different, compare to others, is that it seems to stand in opposite site not only to the modernist art that is its immediate forebear but also to the entire longstanding tradition of high culture, and its institutions. It challenges not only the style of art, but also its domain. Beginning in the 1960s, popular culture became a subject of considerable currency in contemporary art. Photography has come to play an increasing role in this field, since it is both symptomatic and symbolic of the superabundance of image in mass –media, mass-produced, mass-reproduced culture. All postmodernist photography, and all postmodernist art, has an adversarial relationship to conventional ideas of aesthetic value. 1980s art photographs are merely symptoms of a deeper difference. Photographs are no longer seen as transparent windows on the world, but as complicated context of culture.

Presentation without Representation

     After modernism, it seems that photography absorbed by much complicated cultural index and symptom and it affected by marketplace of the art world. Andy Warhol’s career as an artist is curious. He was an American artist who became a central figure in the movement of pop art. After a successful career as a commercial illustrator, Warhol became famous worldwide for his work as a painter; an avant-garde filmmaker, a record producer, an author and a public figure known for his presence in wildly diverse social circles that included bohemian street people, distinguished intellectuals, Hollywood celebrities and wealthy aristocrats. He touched everything, of course, he used photography as an object. Grundberg pointed out that Warhol sought to open art to commonplace experience and to acknowledge the influence of mass media, including camera-based reproduction. Besides producing paintings, Wharhol made film, published magazine, promoted  a rock band and took photographs.

 

Cindy Sherman

     It thought what Cindy Sherman’s work absorbed is that it seems to burrow variety of contextual possibility which based on popular culture. Sherman works in series, typically photographing herself in a range of costumes. She represented her self as an object. Her picture was that disguised self-portrait that comments on social role-playing and sexual stereotypes. For instance, in her photograph series, the Complete Untitled Film Stills, (1977-1980) Sherman appeared as B-movie, foreign film and film noir style actresses. Although Sherman does not consider her work feminist, many of her photo-series, like the 1981 Centerfolds, call attention to the stereotyping of women in films, television and magazines.  

 

 After variety of ‘ism’.

     Grundberg states that it already has been 150 years since photography, that most literal of image making media, appeared on the scene. To say that photography has changed the way we view the world and ourselves is perhaps of reality and , in the process, transformed it self. Photography regarded as innocent “mirrors with a memory”, it merely reflecting the world balck at us in a simple translation. Photography did not change the world, it has been influenced. Photography is constructions and not reflections of reality. This recognition is the basis for the medium’s presence within the art world. In this point of view, photography can be defined as both personally and culturally expressive. It thought that photography reflects the artistic condition of the day.   

Conclusion

     It is thought that postmodernism is a complicated term, or set of various ideas, one that has only emerged as an area of academic study since the middle of 1980s. Klages, M (2007) states that postmodernism is hard to define, because it is a concept that appears in a wide variety of disciplines or areas of study, including art, architecture, music, film, literature, sociology, communications, fashion, and technology. It's hard to locate it temporally or historically, because it's not clear exactly when postmodernism begins. Perhaps the easiest way to start study about postmodernism is by analysis of modernism, the movement from which postmodernism seems to grow or emerge. It seems that Postmodernism, like modernism, follows most of these same ideas, rejecting boundaries between high and low forms of art, rejecting rigid genre distinctions, emphasizing pastiche, parody, irony, and playfulness. Postmodern art (and thought) favours reflexivity and self-consciousness, fragmentation and discontinuity (especially in narrative structures), ambiguity, simultaneity, and an emphasis on the destructured, decentered, dehumanized subject. It seems that postmodernism still exists in aspect of modernism. Modernism was similar to a wish and hope of people or artist who exhausted by rigid thinking that is rejection of traditional notion and ideas.

 

 



 

 

Bibliography

Barthes, R., 1982. la chamber Claire. London : Jonathan Cafe Press.

Benjamin, W., 1970. Illumination . London : Jonathan Cafe Press.

Epstein, B., 1998. Interpreting the World (Without Necessarily Changing It). New Politics, 6(4)

Elkins, J., 2003. Critical Response: What Do We Want Photography to Be? A Response to Michael Fried. Critical inquiry, 31(4), 938 - 956

Grundberg, A., 1999. Crisis of The Real. 2nd ed. New Jersey: Aperture Foundation, Inc.

Harrison, C., 1994.  English art and modernism. 2nd ed. Yale University Press.

Leggat, R., 1999. PICTORIALISM  [Online]. Available at: http://www.rleggat.com/photohistory/history/pictoria.htm [Accessed 25, May, 2007].

Philips, C., 2006. Modernist photography [Online]. New York: International Centre of Photography.  Available at: http://www.icp.org/site/c.dnJGKJNsFqG/b.1026839/k.6C76/Modernist_Photography.htm [Accessed 28, May, 2007].

Philips, J., 2007. Aura: More on Walter Benjamin [Online]. Singapore: National University of Singapore. Available at: http://www.nus.edu [Accessed 30, May, 2007].

 



                                                                                                                

      

 


'Excretion' 카테고리의 다른 글

2007년에 쓴 글  (0) 2018.05.25
올해 최초 포스팅이라니  (0) 2015.12.29
서러움. 발터 벤야민. 국경의 눈.  (0) 2015.03.14
닮았다고 생각하다.  (0) 2015.03.12
아침 혹은 저녁  (0) 2014.11.15
샤오 홍  (0) 2014.10.04
Trackback 0 : Comment 0

Write a comment


더러워진 기억들

Works - Colour 2018.01.25 18:38

 

 

 

널 생각하는 일들이 얼마나 참혹한 길인지 알고는 있느냐.

'Works - Colour' 카테고리의 다른 글

더러워진 기억들  (0) 2018.01.25
덧없는 유혹  (0) 2016.01.02
부산  (0) 2014.11.22
2014.11.10  (0) 2014.11.15
2014.11.13  (0) 2014.11.15
매일 찍어도 새로운.  (0) 2014.10.12
Trackback 0 : Comment 0

Write a comment


Could it be real?

Works - B & W 2017.07.16 19:51

 

'Works - B & W' 카테고리의 다른 글

Could it be real?  (0) 2017.07.16
슬픔은 네 본질이거니  (0) 2015.12.31
검은 바다  (0) 2015.12.30
곡률의 빛  (0) 2015.03.15
세상이라는 조합  (1) 2014.11.16
오로지 빛의 윤곽을 보는 것이 내 운명이려니.  (0) 2014.10.04
Trackback 0 : Comment 0

Write a comment


덧없는 유혹

Works - Colour 2016.01.02 18:06

 

 

 

그리고 의미없는 대화들. 못짓들. 공허한 그 공기들.

'Works - Colour' 카테고리의 다른 글

더러워진 기억들  (0) 2018.01.25
덧없는 유혹  (0) 2016.01.02
부산  (0) 2014.11.22
2014.11.10  (0) 2014.11.15
2014.11.13  (0) 2014.11.15
매일 찍어도 새로운.  (0) 2014.10.12
Trackback 0 : Comment 0

Write a comment


슬픔은 네 본질이거니

Works - B & W 2015.12.31 17:56

 

 

 

슬퍼하는 자에게 복이 있으리라.

'Works - B & W' 카테고리의 다른 글

Could it be real?  (0) 2017.07.16
슬픔은 네 본질이거니  (0) 2015.12.31
검은 바다  (0) 2015.12.30
곡률의 빛  (0) 2015.03.15
세상이라는 조합  (1) 2014.11.16
오로지 빛의 윤곽을 보는 것이 내 운명이려니.  (0) 2014.10.04
Trackback 0 : Comment 0

Write a comment